Data envelopment analysis

what is DEA?

DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is a non-parametric method used to evaluate the efficiency and productivity of decision-making units (DMUs) that convert inputs into outputs. It’s a popular technique in operations research and management science, helping organizations identify best practices, benchmark performance, and optimize resource allocation.

DEA Steps

Identify Units

 Select decision-making units (DMUs) to compare. Choose entities like branches or departments for analysis.

Collect Data

Gather input and output data for each DMU. Record resources used and results produced by each unit.

Select Model

Select model to best fit the analysis objectives and data characteristics.

Compute Efficiency

Use the model to calculate efficiency scores for each DMU. Determine how effectively each unit uses resources compared to others.


Identify efficient DMUs and set them as benchmarks. Find the best-performing units to serve as performance standards.

Analyze Results

Examine the efficiency scores and performance gaps.
Look at how each unit measures up and identify improvement areas.


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DEA books

DEA Books

Explore key books on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). These texts provide foundational theory, methodology, and diverse applications of DEA, offering tools to measure and enhance efficiency across various domains. Ideal for academics, practitioners, and those seeking to deepen their understanding of performance evaluation.

DEA Articles

This section highlights essential articles on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), covering foundational theories, advanced techniques, and real-world applications. These articles offer insights into efficiency measurement and benchmarking, providing practical examples and innovations. A valuable resource for understanding DEA’s evolving landscape and enhancing performance evaluation practices.

DEA articles


Explore our FAQ section for straightforward answers about Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Find solutions to common questions, offering clear guidance and enhancing your understanding of efficiency analysis. This resource makes navigating DEA concepts and our site more accessible and user-friendly.

DEA Example

This section offers simple, step-by-step examples of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), with clear explanations and practical scenarios. Perfect for easy understanding and application in efficiency analysis.

DEA examples